This Spring Break, I spent my time focusing on preparing resources and reviewing literature to help implement my first official classroom flip. After Spring break, the grade 9 social studies team at my school will be flipping our immigration section. Below, you will find the video I have prepared, which is available on my YouTube channel:
Moving ahead with the classroom flip, I am paying close attention to three emerging promising practices in literature. Due to the recent emergence of flipped classroom literature, strategies identified as effective in supporting this pedagogical approach are best described as promising practices. A practice qualifies as a promising when it successfully addresses a common problem in one context and has the potential for replication (The National Resource Center, 2010). The practice makes an effort to demonstrate how to achieve optimal performance (Robinson, 2008), and has the potential for becoming a best practice with a long-term, sustainable impact (The National Resource Center, n.d.).
Composing flipped instructional medias:
Early research identifies the composition and creation of high-quality flip instructional medias as vital to the success of the classroom flip. Research reports students tend easily distracted from learning when watching or listening to video lectures (Toto & Nguyen, 2009; Zappe, Leicht, Messner, Litzinger & Lee, 2009). Consequently, several significant elements to video composition must be considered. Distractions, such as background noise, must be limited (Foertsch, Moses, Strikwerda & Litzkow, 2002). Also, the quality of the recorded lecture must high, specifically the volume, size of video window, and platform compatibility (Gannod, Burge, & Helmick, 2008). Further, various methods of multi-media should be incorporated to keep students interested and engaged (Gannod, 2007). Alternative multi-media formats include podcasts and screencast video blogs (Bergman & Sams, 2008; Gannod et al., 2008). Last, the length of the flipped lesson is key. To maintain the learner’s attention, lectures should be no longer than thirty minutes (Zappe et al., 20009; Toto & Nguyen, 2009). Creating high quality medias will assist in establishing a successful flipped classroom framework.
Addressing the digital divide
Once flip materials have been created, these must be made accessible to learners, which is essential to the success of the flipped classroom approach. Flip lectures can be uploaded and stored in free open-source learning management systems (LMS). Many educational institutions purchase and offer free access to an LMS for students, such as BlackBoard Collaborate and Desire to Learn. However, if this is not the case, free online alternatives, such as Moodle, exist (Ullman, 2013). For students who do not have internet access, resources can be burnt to DVD’s or uploaded onto USB sticks (Fulton, 2012; Kachka, 2012; Ullman, 2013). For learners who do not have computer access at home, allowing class time to watch videos when assignments are completed or providing students access to computers outside of class time will help prevent technological limitations (Ullman, 2013). Planning and preparing solutions to address the digital divide will assist in a smooth transition for learners participating in the classroom flip.
Replacing instructional time
Success of flipped classroom instruction lies in what replaces the classroom time previously used for lecturing. When the flip is executed, classroom time should not be used not re-teach flipped content. A short review of video materials to ensure student understanding of the material is beneficial (Foertsch et al., 2002; Zappe et al., 2009); however, extend this learning by including short example problems that will help complete the in-class activity (Zappe et al., 2009). Once student understanding is achieved, rich discussions and hands-on, collaborative project-based activities should be emphasized (Ullman, 2013; Zappe et al., 2009). Discussions should engage students, check for understanding, and encourage higher-order questioning (Bergman & Sams, 2008; Schullery, Reck & Schullery, 2011). This will allow for immediate modifications when necessary, enabling the teacher to invest time with learners who require additional support. Activities should emphasize active engagement, exploring concepts in-depth through group work, class presentations, and the use of electronic media. This results in collaborative learning, which increases skill development (Lage, Platt & Treglia, 2000; Schullery, Reck & Schullery, 2011). Class time can also be used to engage in problem-solving activities (Toto & Nguyen, 2009). The use of response clicker systems, such as SMART Response, and integration interactive demonstrations, such as labs, are also proven as effective (Moravec, Williams, Aguilar-Roca & O’Dowd, 2010).
Keep your fingers crossed for my colleagues and myself – I will provide an update soon!
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2008). Remixing chemistry class. Learning & Leading with Technology, 22 – 27.
Foertsch, J., Moses, G., Strikwerda, J. & Litzkow, M. (2002). Reversing the lecture/homework paradigm using eTeachã web-based streaming video software. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(3), 267 – 74.
Fulton, K. (2012, June/July). Upside down and inside out: Flip your classroom to improve student learning. Learning & Leading with Technology, 13 – 17.
Gannod, G (2007, October). WIP: Using podcasting in an inverted classroom. Paper presented at the meeting of the 2007 ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Wisconsin.
Gannod, G., Burge, J. & Helmick, M. (2008, May). Using the inverted classroom to teach software engineering. Paper presented at the meeting of the 2008 IEEE International Conference of Software Engineering, Leipzig, Germany.
Gagnon G. & Collay, M. (2006). Constructivist Learning Design: Key Questions for Teaching to Standards. London: Corwin Press.
Kachka, P. (2012). Understanding the flipped classroom: Part 2. Teaching with Technology. Madison, WI: Magna Publications. Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-with-technology-articles/understanding-the-flipped-classroom-part-2/
Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. Journal Of Economic Education, 31(1), 30-43.
Moravec, M., Williams, A., Aguilar-Roca, N., & O’Dowd, K. (2010). Learn before lecture: A strategy that improves learning outcomes in a large introductory biology class. CBE – Life Sciences Education, 9, 473-81.
Robinson, S. (2008). Promising practices and core learnings in arts education: Literature review of K-12 fine arts programs. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Education. Retrieved from http://education.alberta.ca/media/900551/promising.pdf
The National Resource Center (2010). Strengthening Nonprofits: A capacity builder’s resource library. Identifying and promoting effective practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/ocs/id_bestpractices.pdf
The National Resource Center (n.d.). Intermediary development series: Identifying and promoting promising practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from http://medinfo.psu.ac.th/KM/images/stories/Identify_best_practices.pdf
Toto, R. & Nguyen H. (2009). Flipping the work design in an industrial engineering course. Frontiers in Education Conference, 1-4.
Ullman, E. (2013). Tips to help flip your classroom: Teachers offer their strategies for making the most out of the flipped classroom model. ASCD Education Update 55 (2), 1 – 5.
Young, B., Hughes, H., Inzko, H., Oberdick, J., & Smail, R. (2011). 7 things you need to know about flipping the classroom. Retrieved from The Pennsylvania State University website: http://tlt.its.psu.edu/hot-team/2011/files/2011-Flipping-the-Classroom.pdf
Zappe, S., Leicht, R., Messner, J., Litzinger, T., & Lee, H. W. (2009). Flipping the classroom to explore active learning in a large undergraduate course. Washington: American Society for Engineering Education. Retrieved from: http://search.asee.org/search/fetch?url=file%3A%2F%2Flocalhost%2FE%3A%2Fsearch%2Fconference%2F19%2FAC%25202009Full92.pdf&index=conference_papers&space=129746797203605791716676178&type=application%2Fpdf&charset